All publications of Narmin Tagiyeva . Bakı , Azərbaycan Respublik
NATIONAL REVIVAL DAY
November 17 is celebrated by our state and people as "National Revival Day". On November 17, 1988, the people flocked to Freedom Square in Baku to raise their first mass protest against the Soviet empire, which had held Azerbaijan under colonial rule for 70 years.The mass people's movement against a regime that supported Armenian separatism and terrorism in the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region of Azerbaijan, promoted Armenian land claims against Azerbaijan, and did not protect the rights and interests of the Azerbaijani people began on November 17. On that day, the people of Azerbaijan united like a fist and proved to the whole world that they are a people worthy of freedom.
As a result of the socio-political processes taking place in the former USSR since the mid-1980s, Azerbaijan had ample opportunities for independence. The genocide against Azeri Turks in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh was supported by the Soviet army.
Armenian bandits, armed from head to toe, brutally killed the civilian population. The bloodthirsty savages did not spare anyone: the elderly, babies, or even pregnant women. The communist leadership of the time, flattered and helpless in front of Moscow in order to maintain its position, could not stand up for the true interests of the people and the country.
The people of Azerbaijan, who did not agree with all these injustices and attacks on the territorial integrity, stood up on November 17. In those days, the so-called "Square Movement" revived the national consciousness, which had been repressed under the Soviet colonial regime, and a turn towards self-awareness began.
The people's movement gained mass character not only in Baku, but also in Nakhchivan, Ganja and Lankaran. The powerful people's movement that engulfed all the cities and regions of our republic threatened to sweep the communist regime out of Azerbaijan. The people's movement was in full view.
Fearing this, the leaders of the empire sent troops to Baku on the night of November 24-25..Curfew was applied. But the people did not back down.The "Square Movement", which began with demands from the Soviet regime to end Armenian separatism and terrorism in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh, to ensure the territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, to stop the looting of our wealth, soon turned to slogans calling for Azerbaijan's independence. The tricolor, moon-star flags of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic were waved on the square. But the forces were still unequal. Although the empire was weak from within, it did not relinquish its military power.
The forces had to be preserved for the future struggle for freedom. On the night of December 4-5, the Soviet army managed to suppress the "Square Movement". Thousands of freedom-loving people were arrested and imprisoned. However, it was impossible to break the people's will to fight. The road to Azerbaijan's independence began on November 17 - Freedom Square. Shortly afterwards, history spoke for itself.Azerbaijan regained its independence. November 17 was marked as the day of the beginning of the national liberation movement - the Day of National Revival...
Have a look at this Armenian girl -Ani Nazarian , please. She wants to become a citizen of Azerbaijan, because she knows that her government always tells lies and she knows well that Armenia fought for nothing. A lot of people from Armenia get it that their government is based on fake news and imaginary stories. That's the proof!!! Ani Nazarian wrote her impression after reading the comments and responses that were typed by Azerbaijanis below her post . She was even shocked after realizing that how our people were kind to her. That's not surprising at all, because Azerbaijan is the land of the multiculturalism and brave heart people. We Azerbaijanis can never disappoint those who understand the meaning of this war of truth, war of justice!!!
Yerevan (İrevan) is the ancient land of Azerbaijan.
Source: Nazim Mustafa City of Yerevan, Baku - 2013. Translated into English by Narmin Tagiyeva.
The city of Yerevan is as dear and native to every Azerbaijani as the ancient cities of Baku, Ganja, Barda, Sheki, Derbent, Nakhchivan, Tabriz, Ardabil. At different times, the territory where the city of Yerevan was located was part of the Urartu, Sassanid, Arab caliphates, Sajids, Shaddadis, Seljuks, Eldenizs, Ilkhanids, Teymurids, Garagoyunlu, Aghgoyunlu, Safavids, Afshars, Gajars, Tsarist Russia. Only after the establishment of the first Armenian state in the South Caucasus in 1918, the city of Yerevan became the capital of Armenia. The city of Yerevan is located in the northeastern part of the Agri valley, with a latitude of 40 ° 08 ′ north latitude and a longitude of 44 ° 10 ′ east. The city of Yerevan, built at an altitude of about 900-1000 meters above sea level, is surrounded on all sides by gardens.
The name of this city, inhabited only by Azerbaijani Turks since ancient times, is mentioned in medieval written sources as Ravan, Iravan, Irivan. After the occupation by Russian troops in the early 19th century, the name of the city was written as Yerevan (Erivan), and later, in the 20th century, it became the capital of the Armenian state for the first time in history. Armenian historians are trying to connect the name of the city they now call Yerevan with the name of Erebuni (Irpuni) fortress, built during the reign of Urartu Tsar Argishti I (782 BC).
The Erebuni fortress was built only for military purposes, and no urban infrastructure was ever formed around it. Just as the Urartians had nothing to do with the Armenians, the ancient fortress of Erebuni had no spatial or historical connection with the present-day city of Yerevan. There was a long distance between the ancient settlement of Iravan, which was formed as a city from the Middle Ages, and the Erebunu fortress, which was discovered during archeological excavations in 1950. Only in the second half of the twentieth century did they include the Bloody Hill, where the Erebuni fortress was located, in the suburbs. It is clear from the cuneiform inscriptions of the Urartian period that e. b. until the first quarter of the 8th century, the Agri Valley (the left bank of the Araz River and the lower reaches of the Arpachay) was occupied by the Urartians, the area was called the land of the Aza people.The absolute majority of hydronyms (rivers, lakes, springs, etc.), oronyms (mountains, valleys, passes, plains, etc.), oykonims (settlements, streets, neighborhoods, etc.) in and around the city of Yerevan are in Azerbaijani Turkish shows that this area is ancientwas one of the settlements.Among the material and cultural samples discovered during the excavations in the city of Yerevan, no Armenian samples have been found so far. During the nearly 1,200 years from the fall of the Urartians to the establishment of the Arab caliphate, no settlement mentions this settlement. This is also acknowledged by some objective Armenian historians.
This fortress-city, located on trade routes and formed as a city in the Middle Ages, inhabited only by Azerbaijani Turks, was also one of the rich cultural centers of Azerbaijan. The city of Iravan as a center developed rapidly socio-economically during the Chukhur-Saad Beylerbeyi and Iravan khanates.In the Middle Ages, the city of Iravan, located between the Zangi (now called Hrazdan) and Geder rivers, was surrounded by mountains and hills on the north-west and north-east, and a arable valley on the south and south-west. The Iravan fortress was built on a steep hill on the left bank of the Zangi River. Due to its strategic importance from the geographical point of view, the city of Yerevan has always been a battlefield and has passed from hand to hand many times. The city, which was devastated by wars and earthquakes, was rebuilt in a short period of time each time. The very famous Iravan Fortress and Gardens have been in the spotlight of all travelers to the city, and extensive information has been provided about them.
Located in the arid subtropical climate zone, the city of Yerevan is surrounded by very fertile and fertile soils. Famous Iravan gardens and orchards were irrigated by canals built by Iravan khans from Zangi and Gedar rivers at different times. Four canals - Mamra, Abuhayat, Dalma and Tazakend - were built from the Zangi River to irrigate the gardens in and around the city. The gardens in the south of the city were irrigated by canals and ditches drawn from the river (Kirkhbulag). Harvest was taken from the lands of Yerevan 2-3 times a year.
Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the city of Yerevan was supplied with drinking water from four sources - the Zangi River, numerous springs in the area called Soyudluk, a reservoir built in the city gardens of the Gedar (Kirkhbulag) River and canals dug in various places. At the beginning of the 20th century, a water pipeline was laid to the city from the source of the Gedar River (Kirkhbulag), about 19 km from Yerevan. The wealthy Azerbaijanis of the city had an exceptional service in the construction of this pipeline.
During the khanate period, the city of Iravan consisted of four quarters - Gala, Shahar (Shahri), Tepebashi and Demirbulag settlements. Very few Armenians lived only in some settlements around the city. The city (Shahri) massif was the oldest part of Yerevan. About 50 Armenian Gypsy families (vacant lands) from India settled in the Tepebashi massif (now called Kond) to the west of the city. The Tepebashi massif was separated from the city massif by numerous gardens of famous people of Yerevan. Only Azerbaijanis lived in the Demirbulag massif (now called Karanki Tag) in the south of the city. As noted by French travelers J. Tavernye and J. Chardin, only Azerbaijanis lived in the Iravan fortress.
There is not a single historical-architectural monument belonging to Armenians over 200 years old in the modern city of Yerevan. Because in the city of Yerevan, Armenians were gradually moved from Iran and Turkey after the occupation of the Iravan Khanate by Russia in the early 19th century. Historical and architectural monuments in Yerevan were built in the style of Oriental architecture. Travelers and chroniclers described Yerevan as a typical Muslim city in their works.
Since the city of Yerevan was located at the crossroads of caravan routes, many caravanserais and trade squares were built here. Caravanserais built of stone, with square squares in the middle and swimming pools were considered to be the most beautiful buildings in Yerevan. At the beginning of the 19th century, there were 8 caravanserais in Yerevan. There were 851 kiosks in Julfa, Georgian, Zarrabi khan (Serrafkhana), Tahir, Sulu, Susuz, Avshar, Haji Ali caravanserais.
In the central part of the city there was a square measuring 400 × 400 m, called the Great Square. The Qantar scales for heavy loads and the Mizan scales for light loads were located in this square. Other squares were called Khan Bagi, Zal khan, Huseynali khan, Labor market square. Until recently, the area where the building of Panah Khan Makinsky was located was called Panah Khan Square .
There were 8 baths in the Eastern architectural style in Yerevan - Shahar, Zal khan, Sheikhulislam, Mehdi bey, Haji Beyim (daughter of the last Iravan khan's brother Hasan khan), Tepebashi, Haji Ali, Haji Fatali, Karim bey baths. In addition to the underground teahouse, a special room was allocated for holding mugham meetings in the Zal khan bath complex, which once existed on the site of the Republic Square in the center of Yerevan.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there were dozens of streets in Yerevan with Azerbaijani names. These streets were famous in ancient Yerevan: Shariat, Caravanserai, Gala, Sultan, Cholmekchi, Nakhchivan, Bazar, Dashli, Pasha khan, Gariblar hearth, Deyirmanli, Mosque, Labor market, Tepebashi, Cemetery, Naib, Mir Jafar, Rustam khan, Imamra, Korbulag, Bey, Ketan, Dukanli, Sallakhlar and others.
Land of Gardens There were 1,473 gardens in and around Yerevan, 772 of which were within the city. .The names of Sardar Garden, Dalma, Abbasdarasi, Abuhayat, Keshagli, Gizilgala, Dere Bagi, Savzikari, Khosrovabad, Soyudlu, Gul Deresi, Kankan, Kerpickhana gardens were spread far and wide from Yerevan. Some products of Yerevan gardens were exported to Europe in dried form.
There were 45 mills in and around the city. Hajibeyim, Mohammad khan, Subhangulu khan, Gala, Khan, Doqquz mills belonging to Azerbaijanis were the biggest mills of the city.
The names of about 15 mosques and two Armenian churches in Yerevan are mentioned in the historical literatureblue mosque (or Huseynali khan), Gala mosque (Sardar or Abbas Mirza), Shah Abbas, Tepebashi, Zal khan (or City), Sartib khan, Haji Novruzali bey, Demirbulag, Haji Jafar bey, Rajab pasha, Mohammad Sartib khan, The minarets of Haji Inam mosques mark the fact that Yerevan is a Muslim city from afarhe would give.Mosques were demolished one after another after the establishment of Soviet power in Armenia.
The Blue Mosque, the largest mosque in the South Caucasus, housed the History Museum of Yerevan, and the Zal Khan Mosque became an exhibition hall for artists. only the Demirbulag mosque served its purpose until 1988, and now that mosque has been wiped off the face of the earth and a high-rise building has been erected in its place. The Pogos-Petros and Katogke churches, which existed alongside mosques in the city, were once built at the expense of Christian missionaries to ensure the influx of Armenians into the city.When the first Armenian state - the Republic of Armenia - was established in the South Caucasus in 1918, the National Council of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic decided to make concessions to the Armenians as the capital of the city of Yerevan.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, the Iravan Fortress, the Khan's Palace inside it, and the Abbas Mirza Mosque were considered to be the historical and architectural pearls of the city. armenian vandals gradually wiped out the Iravan Fortress and all the historical and architectural monuments inside it.
After the preparation and implementation of the master plan of Yerevan in 1924, all the historical and architectural monuments belonging to the Azerbaijanis in the city were destroyed one after another, so that in the future they could present Yerevan as an Armenian city. .
In the 30s and 40s of the 20th century, Azerbaijani neighborhoods in the center of Yerevan maintained their existence. Since Armenians have been living in Yerevan since the beginning of the 19th century, Armenian neighborhoods surrounded Azerbaijani neighborhoods like a ring. In the 50s and 60s, the compact neighborhoods of Azerbaijanis and their ancient cemeteries were demolished under the pretext of building new buildings.The massacres of Azerbaijanis in 1905-1906, the genocide of 1918-1920, the deportations of 1948-1953 and 1988-1989 completely changed the Azerbaijani image of the city of Yerevan in favor of the Armenians. Armenians, who erased the material and cultural traces of Azerbaijanis from the city of Yerevan, and then managed to create a mono-ethnic Armenian city by destroying the Azerbaijani ethnic identity, are still trying to erase the traces of Azerbaijanis from history books and textbooks.
Shusha is one of the most beautiful cities in Azerbaijan. The word "Shusha", which means the name of this city, comes from the word "glass", which symbolizes the pure, unusually transparent mountain air of this land. Nature has given Shusha unique springs and mineral waters. Sour water, Isabulagi, Sakina spring, Hot spring, Cold spring, Charikh spring, Pottery spring, Forty springs, Hundred springs and other springs prove it.
Shusha fortress - the fortress walls surrounding the city of Shusha in Azerbaijan. For a long time, the castle protected the city from foreign interference and has long been a symbol of invincibility. During the march of Agha Mohammad Shah Gajar to the South Caucasus, the fortress was under siege for a long time. but attempts to seize the fortress failed.
The area is strategically very favorable. Thus, as in the Sheki fortress, the Shusha fortress is located in a high mountainous area. Karabakh khan Panahali khan, taking into account the unfavorable geographical position of Bayat fortress and Shahbulag fortress, decided to restore Shusha fortress in 1753 and the center of Karabakh khanate was moved here. After the restoration of the fortress, it was called Panahabad for a long time.
Shusha fortress is one of the most beautiful pearls of Azerbaijani architecture. The castle was built in the style of the Arran School of Architecture. Local stones and a mixture of lime and egg yolk were used in the construction of the fortress. The castle has three gates. Ganja Gate is distinguished by its high architectural features. The castle has circular security towers. Near the castle, a bridge with high architectural qualities was built, which connects the castle with the outside world. This bridge is known as the Castle Bridge.
WE RETURNED TO SHUSHA!!! ??
Shusha, the beating heart of Karabakh, the cradle of Azerbaijani music, was occupied by Armenia on May 8, 1992. Hundreds of historical monuments in the city have been insulted and destroyed. The enemy was advancing towards Shusha, destroying the villages of Meshali, Karkijahan, Malibeyli, Gushchular, Khojaly settlement. But no one believed that Shusha would collapse. On the day of the occupation of Shusha, it was a great blow to the minds of the Azerbaijani people, a catastrophe that bleeds in our hearts, a constant wound. Cultural and educational centers, museums, libraries, schools, medical centers, historical monuments - all this was destroyed by Armenian vandals. Valuable exhibits of Shusha museums, including paintings and sculptures, ancient carpets, important documents and other valuable materials were taken to Armenia.The house of prominent Azerbaijani poet of the 19th century Khurshidbanu Natava was set on fire, the Govharaga mosque, a pearl of Oriental architecture and a symbol of Shusha, was destroyed, and the house-museums of great Azerbaijani musicians Uzeyir Hajibeyli and Bulbul were destroyed.Shusha was a mountainous climatic resort located 373 kilometers from Baku, on a wide plateau at an altitude of 1400-1500 meters above sea level. There are deposits of construction materials and mineral springs (Turshsu and Shirlan) in its territory. Shusha was not only a paradise, but also a strategically important impregnable fortress.Panahali khan Sarijali-Javanshir was the founder of this unique and mysterious city. After the death of Nadir Shah, Panahali Bey, who declared himself khan in 1747, decided to build a fortress to protect the Karabakh khanate from enemy attack. In 1750, he laid the foundation of a new fortress on the ruins of a very ancient fortress, once surrounded by steep cliffs on three sides in the most beautiful corner of Karabakh, and built defensive walls, buildings and a palace.
After the death of Panahali khan, Ibrahimkhalil khan (1763-1866), one of the great statesmen of his time, came to the throne. During his reign, the power of the Karabakh khanate flourished. Both Panahali khan and Ibrahimkhalil khan built Shusha in accordance with the most beautiful traditions of ancient and medieval architecture. The city was initially divided into 17 neighborhoods: Big Wolves, Small Wolves, Seyidli, Julfalar, Taza neighborhood, Hamamgabagi, Demirchiler, Kuyulug, Khojamirjanli, Mamayi, Saatli, Kocharli, Mardinli, Cholgala, Haji Yusifli, Chukhur neighborhood and Agadadali. Each neighborhood had its own bath, mosque, and fountain. There were 300 historical monuments of Shusha, including 23 national and world monuments, 550 ancient residential buildings, 870-meter-long fortified walls. Most of these monuments date back to the XVIII-XIX centuries. Every house, every street, the magnificent castle walls, mosques, high minarets were a chronicle of our past. In the 19th century, 12 more neighborhoods were built in the mountainous area in the western part of the city, thus forming the image of the city.In the southern part of the city there is a high horizontal plain. It is called the Racecourse. In the early days of Russian rule, Shusha maintained its importance as the capital of Karabakh. Russia did not like a strong Karabakh khanate. Tsarist officials plotted to weaken him. they began to relocate homeless Armenians to Karabakh, especially to Shusha.
During the Second Russian-Iranian War, 18,000 Armenian families were relocated from Iran to Azerbaijan, including Karabakh. According to the Turkmenchay Treaty, thousands of Armenians were resettled in the South Caucasus in just two years - in 1828-1830. Armenians have been allocated more than 200,000 desiates of the best lands of Ganja and Yerevan provinces.In the twentieth century,
Shusha fell victim to the insidious plans of the Armenians three times. The city was occupied and burned in 1905-1907, and in 1920 most of it was destroyed. In May 1992, it was completely occupied.During the occupation of Shusha, which covers 289 square kilometers, 480 civilians were killed, 600 were injured, including 150 disabled, 552 children were orphaned, 68 civilians were taken hostage or missing, and more than 25,000 were displaced. Hundreds of historical monuments of the city were insulted. The enemy did not even honor the memory of Uzeyir Hajibeyli, Bulbul and Natava, the luminaries of Azerbaijani music and literature, whose bullet-riddled monuments were later brought to Baku.
It is currently housed in the garden of the National Museum of Art under the name "Shot Statues".Today is a historic day in Azerbaijan. The city of Shusha, the heart of Karabakh, which has been occupied by Armenian vandals for 28 years, has been liberated. November 8, 2020 entered the glorious pages of Azerbaijan as a historic victory.
Khankendi is located on the banks of the Gargar River, at the eastern foot of the Karabakh Range, 385 km from Baku. Administratively, Khankendi city coverage includes Khankendi city and Karkijahan settlement. It was the center of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region. The area is 8.8 km². The population is 55.3 thousand (01. 01. 2013) The city of Khankendi was occupied by the Armenian armed forces on 28. 12. 1991.
The city of Khankendi is surrounded by Kalbajar, Tartar, Aghdara, Aghdam in the north, Shusha in the south, Khojavend in the east, Lachin in the west, and Khojaly and Askeran districts in the center.
Khankendi differs from most other Azerbaijani cities in that it is relatively young. According to archival documents, the city was built in the late 18th century as a place of rest for the Karabakh khans. In order to create maximum conditions for the activities of the khans, the settlement was built 10 kilometers from the capital of the khanate, Panahabad (now Shusha), at the foot of the mountain. In the first years, only the khan's family and relatives lived in the new settlement, so it is popularly known as "Khan's village".
After a short time it was renamed Khankendi. Although Khankendi was built as a recreation center for the Karabakh khans, in the 20th century it began to develop as a new industrial and cultural center of Azerbaijan. At the same time, this work is always supported by the general republican resources of Azerbaijan.
The enterprises built in Khankendi produced more than half of the province's industrial output. In Khankendi, there was a silk factory, shoes, carpets, sewing factories, a dairy plant and a winery known throughout the South Caucasus. The products of the electrotechnical plant, furniture factory and construction materials plant have taken a worthy place in the domestic market of Azerbaijan.
When the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region was established by the Decree of the Soviets of the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan dated July 7, 1923, the center of that region was the city of Khankendi. 18.09. In 1923, by the decision of the Karabakh Regional Party Committee, the city of Khankendi was renamed Stapanakert.
By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR No. 837-IX dated May 15, 1978, the center of Stepanakert region was transferred from Stepanakert city to Askeran workers' settlement and Stepanakert region was renamed Askeran region.
According to the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR dated April 21, 1990, No. 1783-XI, Karkijahan settlement of Stepanakert city was referred to the category of urban settlements and Karkijahan Settlement Council was established within Stepanakert City Council.
According to the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan No. 279-XII dated November 26, 1991 “On Abolition of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region of the Republic of Azerbaijan”, the historical name of the city was returned and Stepanakert was renamed Khankendi.
Armenians insulted the mosque
The historical territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Nagorno-Karabakh region and the surrounding areas, which have been occupied by the Armenian armed forces for almost 30 years, are being cleared of oil by the glorious Azerbaijani Army. Under the leadership of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of our Armed Forces, President Ilham Aliyev, our heroic servicemen liberated the cities of Jabrayil, Fizuli, Zangilan and Gubadli, as well as more than 200 settlements and villages.During the long occupation, as a result of the aggressive policy of Armenia, real historical and cultural monuments belonging to the Azerbaijani people were destroyed, appropriated and vandalized, used inappropriately for their historical and cultural purpose. The most destroyed examples of immovable cultural heritage by the Armenian armed forces were Islamic religious monuments - mosques, tombs and other places of worship. Armenians have expressed their hatred for Azerbaijanis by keeping pets inside mosques. Such barbaric treatment of cultural heritage in the occupied territories, as well as unique monuments of special importance, should be considered as a threat to world heritage.Many of the monuments in the liberated areas, including the 18th-century mosque in the village of Mamer in the Gubadli region, are in poor condition, as expected. Notorious Armenians also used this religious and cultural monument as a pigsty as a mosque in Zangilan district. This reflects the attitude of the Republic of Armenia to other religions and its true face. At the same time, since this fact of vandalism is a barbaric attitude to the world's cultural heritage in general, international organizations should be sharply criticized by the progressive world community and receive a legal assessment.We call on the states and peoples of the civilized world to condemn such heinous acts of the Republic of Armenia against human values.
According to the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, adopted in The Hague in 1954,The occupying power must not allow the destruction, looting and misappropriation of cultural property, and must refrain from hostile actions against these resources.
[The article source: axar. az] Translated into English by Narmin Tagiyeva.
Written By Gasim Hajiyev, doctor of historical sciences. Translated by Narmin Tagiyeva.
The Karabakh region of Azerbaijan is one of the oldest human settlements in the world - the area inhabited by the people of the Azig camp, which is 2 million years old. The territory of Karabakh is the residence of the creators of the Guruchay culture of the Paleolithic period, the successors of the Kur-Araz and Khojaly-Gadabay cultures, which existed in the Bronze and Iron Ages and replaced each other.
Ancient stone monuments found in the mountainous and plain parts of Karabakh - dolmens in Khojaly, cromlexes in Khankendi, as well as ancient stone tombs found in different parts of Karabakh - are signs of material culture reflecting the ideology of that period - spiritual thought.
Among the states of Manna, Media, Scythia, Atropatena in the whole territory of Azerbaijan, e. At the turn of the IV-III centuries BC, the state of Caucasian Albania appeared on the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan. B. e. In the first century, Albania was ruled by the Albanian Arshakis. The southern border of Albania passed along the Araz River during this period (Moisey Kalankatuklu. History of Albania (translated by ZM Bunyadov). Baku. Science 1993, 235 p., k. 1, f, 4; Moisey Khorenskogo. History of Armenia. Translation N. Gmina. Moscow, Nauka, 1983 ,, k. 2,8). girdman, Sakasena, Uti, Arsak, Paytakaran, Sisakan were the historical lands of Karabakh (Moisey Kalankatuklu. History of Albania (translated by ZM Bunyadov). Baku. Science 1993. 235 p., p. 4. f. 50; History of Azerbaijan, II c. Baku . Elm, 1998, pp. 15-21) .
Numerous Scythian mounds belonging to the Turkic peoples were discovered in the 6th-3rd centuries in Beylagan, Agjabadi, Barda, Yevlakh, Tartar and the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
Ancient sources provide interesting information about the existence of ancient cities in the ancient territory of Karabakh - Uti, Arsak and Paytakaran. In Barda, Govurgala (Aghdam), Garakopek hill (Fuzuli), Ergi settlement (Agjabedi) and others. Archaeological research confirms this.
In addition to archeological monuments, many surface Christian monuments have been studied in the Karabakh region. Such monuments were found in Barda, Agjabadi, Aghdam, Fuzuli, Aghdara, as well as Lachin and Kalbajar in Karabakh. The most famous of these temples are the Chanchasar (Ganzasar), Amaras, Elysee, and Khotavang temples. It should be noted that Christian monuments belonging to Albanians also exist in other parts of Azerbaijan (Gabala, Nakhchivan, Mingachevir, Gazakh, Tovuz, Shamakhi).
By the way, there was never an Armenian ethnic group in Nagorno-Karabakh until the 19th century. Taking advantage of the presence of autochthonous Albanians in Karabakh, many Armenian families have been resettled there since the 19th century.
This is evidenced by the monument erected by Armenians in 1978 in honor of the resettlement of the first 200 families (Armenian families) to Karabakh (from the Iranian city of Maragha) in the village of Maragha in Agdara (Mardakert) in Nagorno-Karabakh.
The existence of different religions in the territory of Karabakh had a great impact on the social life of human society. The existence and substitution of Christianity and Islam in Karabakh, as elsewhere in Azerbaijan, has been reflected in the culture of construction. In the territory of Karabakh (Amaras in Nagorno-Karabakh, Govurgala in Aghdam, Khotavang in Kalbajar, Agoghlan in Lachin) and in other parts of Albania (Gum village of Gakh region, Big Amidli village of Gabala region, Mingachevir) many Albanian Christian avidas were built.
There were all kinds of Eastern Christian architecture in Albania.The Albanian crosses in Karabakh form a group of their own, subject to religious and artistic laws, with a number of important local features, pre-Christian beliefs and the location of the forces of the universe on all Albanian inscriptions. The Albanian cross has signs that embody pre-Christian beliefs and understanding of the universe. All his compositions reflect the connection between heaven and earth, the sun, light and fertility.
The adoption of Islam marked the beginning of a new phase in Albania (Azerbaijan). Numerous mosques and minarets were built in the Karabakh region of Azerbaijan during the Muslim period. At the same time, Christian churches and other religious temples were preserved here.
At that time, a period of prosperity began in the spiritual culture of Karabakh. Dozens of thinkers known under the pseudonyms "Karabakh" and "Bardai" grew up, and information about their names, personalities and creativity became history.
In the XI-XII centuries, when the Shirvan-Absheron, Nakhchivan-Maragha schools were widespread, reflecting the main directions of architecture, the Arran (Karabakh) school of architecture also determined the further development of medieval Azerbaijani architecture. Architecture and urban planning, decorative and applied arts began to develop, and epigraphic monuments proliferated. More than 2,000 different historical and cultural monuments, mostly of the Muslim period, have been registered in the Karabakh zone. These include residential houses, public buildings, as well as religious buildings and places of pilgrimage.
The cities of Karabakh - Aghdara, Kalbajar, Khojavend, Shusha, Khankendi, Tartar, Fuzuli, Jabrayil, Agjabadi, Lachin, Gubadli, Zangilan - appeared during the Muslim period. In the structure of these cities, the national-spiritual and ideological way of thinking found its artistic expression in the culture of construction. New national-ideological features are reflected in the interiors of houses and office buildings. This is confirmed by the architectural masterpieces built in the Middle Ages in all of Azerbaijan, as well as in Karabakh.
Tomb of Sheikh Yagub (XII century) in Fizuli region, Koch Ahmadli Juma Mosque, Haji Alasgar Mosque, Mir Ali in Ashagi Veysalli village (XIV century) and tombs in Ahmadallar village (XIV century), Sheikh Ibrahim Tomb (XVII century), Ahmad Sultan Tomb, Jalal tomb (ht1307), Juma mosque in Horadiz village, Askeran fortress in the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, “Maiden tower” in Jabrayil region,Tomb in Shikhlar village of Jabrayil (1308) and others. tombs, 12-cornered tomb near Khachin-Derbent village in Aghdam region, Aghdam Juma mosque (1870), tombs, bath building in Abdal-Gulabli village of Aghdam (early XX century), Shahbulag mosque of Aghdam,12 arched bridges over the Tartar River in Barda (XIV century), “Barda”, “Akhsadan Baba” tombs (XIV century), “Imamzade” mosque complex with double minarets built by Karbalai Safkhan Garabaghi in Barda (1868), “Bahman Mirza” tomb , Octagonal tomb in the city of Shusha, Panah khan fortress, Natava's house, Mamayi mosque, caravanserai with mosque of Mashadi Shukur Mirsiyab oglu, Julfalar mosque, Haji Yusifli mosque, Saatli mosque, Yukhari Govharaga mosque, Ashagi Govharaga mosque (XIX century), Khanbasi building, Khan house,gymnasium building, Garasaggal tomb in Lachin area, Soltan baba tomb, Sheikh Ahmad tomb, Sari ashig tomb (XV century), tombs in Cicimli village, “Children's tower” in Gushchu village, “Great spring” monument (XV century),Hamza Sultan's Palace (1761) is also a valuable example of material culture for our history.
In the second half of the 18th century, Bayat, Shahbulag (Tarnakut), Panahabad (Shusha) fortresses were built in Karabakh, and markets, caravanserais, mosques, baths, etc. were built in those fortresses. was built. Buildings in Aghdam. Domes belonging to Panah khan and his descendants were built.
During the Karabakh khanate, many fortresses (Bayat, Shahbulag, Panahabad (Shusha)) were built, city and settlement-type settlements were created. Beautiful and typical examples of wall patterns were created in the interiors of houses and public buildings in Shusha, the center of the Karabakh khanate.
Karabakh carpets, famous since the Middle Ages, have retained their fame to this day. Carpets belonging to the group of Karabakh carpets are distinguished by their names and patterns. Karabakh carpets are divided into the first group under the name of Barda, Agjabedi carpets, the second group under the name of Shusha carpets, the third group under the name of Jabrayil carpets.
The ancient tradition of Karabakh carpet weaving has been intensively continued. The carpet art of Karabakh was concentrated in Shusha in the second half of the 17th century and began to develop on a larger scale.
In Azerbaijan, as well as in Karabakh, as in the whole Muslim East, culture, science and literature underwent a period of high development in the last Middle Ages. In the following periods, Karabakh did not lose its role as a cultural center.
Thus, the research clearly shows that the material cultural heritage of Karabakh is an integral part of the material and spiritual culture of Azerbaijan, and provides grounds to prove that the opposite views are unfounded. As for the current fate of Karabakh monuments, the destructive activities, conflicts and war committed by Armenia in the late twentieth century threatened the fate of material cultural monuments in the Karabakh region of Azerbaijan.
On the eve of the war it was not even possible to take care of the monuments. The transfer of museum exhibits and libraries was not allowed. Ongoing vandalism has destroyed many historical monuments that Azerbaijan has preserved for centuries. They committed the greatest tragedy of the XX century - the Khojaly tragedy. Armenian military units subjected the population of Khojaly to genocide. The famous Khojaly cemetery, a symbol of the historical memory of our great ancestors, was technically destroyed. The haters have escalated this vandalism in Khojaly and Shusha. Khojaly mounds, the ancient cradle of the famous Khojaly-Gadabay culture, were wiped off the face of the earth. In Shusha, statues of Azerbaijani thinkers were pierced with machine gun bullets. They destroyed Shusha museums.
Azykh cave, one of the cradles of the great ancestors of mankind, became a military ammunition depot for Armenians. Islamic monuments were destroyed and wiped off the face of the earth. Albanian Christian monuments were completely falsified. Albanian inscriptions were erased on the Elysee Temple, Hasanriz Temple and other monuments, which are historical monuments of our people. Items belonging to Albanians were destroyed. The inscription on the tomb and tomb of the Albanian ruler Vachaga III, kept in the temple of the Elysee, was completely destroyed.